Groundwater exploration is the investigation of underground formations to understand the hydrologic cycle, know the groundwater quality, and identify the nature, number and type of aquifers. There are different groundwater exploration methods. Surface geophysical method is one of the groundwater investigation methods.
Most of the liquid freshwater resources are stored underground as groundwater (99%). The regional distribution on earth, however, varies and depends mainly on climatic conditions as well as the geology of the subsurface. In contrast to many raw materials, a great amount of the groundwater is recharged in the hydrologic cycle by infiltrating precipitation.
A number of geophysical standard methods such as geoelectrics, transient electromagnetics and airborne electromagnetics are applied for groundwater exploration. The surface nuclear magnetic resonance method and the seismo-electric method are rather new and they are still being developed.